Indonesian Mining Association


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Pasokan Tembaga Dunia Terganggu

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Sengketa tambang Freeport dan BHP Billiton akan mengerek harga tembaga.

JAKARTA - Para produsen tembaga dunia memperkirakan pasokan komoditas mineral ini akan terganggu setelah terjadi sengketa di dua tambang besar, yakni di Cile dan Indonesia. Sebab, kata komisaris perusahaan tembaga Cina, Jiangxi Copper, Li Baomin, tambang Grasberg di Papua dan Escondida di Cile menyumbang 10 persen dari total produksi tembaga dunia. "Jelas gangguan pada dua tambang itu berdampak besar terhadap pasokan konsentrat tembaga," kata Baomin kepada Financial Times, kemarin.

Tambang Escondida di Cile dioperasikan oleh perusahaan Amerika Serikat, BHP Billiton. Dalam setahun terakhir, tambang yang berlokasi di kawasan Antof agasta, sebelah utara Cile, ini menghasilkan 1,1 juta ton tembaga atau setara 5 persen dari total produksi dunia. Namun kegiatan produksinya terganggu setelah para pekerja mogok sejak bulan lalu. Pemogokan ini dipicu masalah kontrak kerja serta penggajian dan tunjangan karyawan baru yang dinilai tak menguntungkan.

Adapun pasokan tembaga dari tambang Grasberg, Papua, yang dioperasikan PT Freeport Indonesia terganggu setelah perusahaan ini bersengketa dengan pemerintah Indonesia. Freeport menolak kemauan pemerintah untuk mengubah status kontrak karya menjadi izin usaha pertambangan khusus (IUPK). sehingga izin ekspornya terhenti. Pasokan konsentrat dari Grasberg yang mencapai l,06miliar pound sepanjang 2016 pun terancam amblas.

Menurut Baomin, situasi ini adalah yang pertama kali terjadi dalam 15 tahun terakhir. Produksi tembaga tahun ini pun ada kemungkinan bakal berkurang dibanding tahun lalu, yang mencapai 16 juta ton. Lantaran tidak ada kelebihan pasokan, harga komoditas ini diperkirakan bakal melesat. Namun perusahaan pengolahan mineral atau pabrik smelter akan kekurangan bahan baku. Baomin memperkirakan sengketa pekerja tambang Escondida bisa segera teratasi. Namun masalah Freeport dengan pemerintah Indonesia bisa jadi tak selesai dalam waktu dekat.

Karena kondisi ini, kata Baomin, Jiangxi Copper akan mengalihkan sumber konsentrat dari Indonesia kepada pemasok lain. Upaya ini dilakukan agar target Jiangxi untuk menaikkan kapasitas produksi dari 1.28 juta ton menjadi 1,36 juta ton tahun ini tidak terganggu. Untuk diketahui, Jiangxi Copper adalah operator smelter tembaga terbesar kedua di Cina.

Setelah pasokan tembaga di pasar dunia berkurang, harga komoditas ini berada dalam tren positif pada awal tahun ini. Data London Metal Exchange (LME) menunjukkan harga tembaga (untuk kontrak pembelian tunai) bergerak dari level US$ 5.500 per metrik ton pada Januari menjadi USS 6.100 per metrik ton pada Februari. Namun, pada awal bulan ini, grafik harga sedikit menukik ke level USS 5.900-5.700 per metrik ton akibat penguatan kurs dolar Amerika dan kenaikan pasokan di gudang LME.

Financial Times juga melaporkan, biaya pengolahan konsentrat tembaga oleh smelter-smelter di Asia menurun hingga ke level terendah dalam empat tahun terakhir. Hal ini terjadi setelah operator smelter berebut bahan baku. Biaya perawatan dan penyulingan yang dikenakan kepada pedagang untuk pengiriman ke Cina anjlok menjadi USS 70 per ton dan USS 7 sen per pound. Sebaliknya, penurunan pasokan dari Indonesia dan Cile akan mendongkrak keuntungan perusahaan tambang besar, seperti Anglo American dan Glencore.

 Sumber : Koran Tempo, 14 Maret 2017

Terakhir Diperbaharui ( Kamis, 23 Maret 2017 09:38 )
 

Kisruh Freeport, Gubernur Papua Lukas Enembe Temui Jokowi

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TEMPO.CO, Jayapura - Gubernur Papua Lukas Enembe sedang menemui Presiden Joko Widodo di Jakarta terkait persoalan PT Freeport Indonesia. "Pak Gubernur sedang berada di Jakarta dan dalam waktu dekat akan bertemu dengan Presiden Joko Widodo, salah satu agendanya membahas Freeport," kata Sekretaris Daerah Papua TEA Heri Dosinaen di Kota Jayapura, Papua, Senin, 13 maret 2017.

 Heri mengemukakan itu di hadapan sekitar 300 demonstran di halaman kantor gubernuran. Mereka yel yel mendukung pemerintah pusat dan daerah melawan sikap perusahaan tambang asal Amerika Serikat PT Freeport Indonesia.

 "Atas nama gubernur, saya sampaikan terima kasih atas dukungan luar biasa ini. Saya sampaikan mohon maaf Pak Gubernur setelah buka Sidang Sinode di Papua Barat, langsung ke Jakarta," katanya.

 Persoalan terkait PT Freeport, kata dia, bukan baru kali ini digaungkan oleh Pemerintah Provinsi Papua dalam era kepemimpinan Lukas Enembe. "Namun, sejak Pak Gubernur Papua dilantik pada 13 April 2013, ada 17 poin yang disampaikan kepada Freeport yang harus dilaksaaakan, antara lain terkait pembangunan smelter di Papua," katanya.

 Selain itu, kata Heri, gaji para karyawan PT Freeport harus dibayarkan harus lewat Bank Papua. "Termasuk Freeport harus buka kantor di Papua dan pengelolaan bandara di Timika yang dikuasai oleh Freeport dikembalikan ke Pemda Papua," katanya.

 Lebih lanjut, Heri menyampaikan bahwa Gubernur Lukas Enembe juga meminta agar pajak air permukaan yang dipakai selama ini harus dibayar sebagaimana putusan sidang di Jakarta.

 "Selain itu pajak air permukaan yang diminta harus dibayar oleh Freeport dan masih banyak lagi yang disampaikan oleh Pak gubernur. Masyarakat Papua harus berani perjuangkan. Jadi sekali lagi mari kita bergandengan tangan dari Sorong sampai Merauke, harus bersatu padu. Papua harus bangkit maju dengan kekayaan alam," kata Heri.

 Para demonstran yang dikoordinir Amir Madubun, Ketua Asosiasi Penambang Rakyat Indonesia Provinsi Papua Kundrat Tukayo dan wakil dari masyarakat adat Ondofolo Oktovianus Monim.

 ANTARA

 Sumber : TEMPO.CO, 14 Maret 2017

Terakhir Diperbaharui ( Kamis, 23 Maret 2017 09:35 )
 

No more special concessions for Freeport

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Today, we see that the dispute between the government and Freeport McMoran over contractual arrangements has mainly focused on unsettled tax concessions.

This little piece will analyze why taxation is a hotspot in every dispute between giant mining companies and governments in extractive industries and why there has been so much drama and scandal.

There are two reasons why mining companies including Freeport McMoRan stubbornly try to obtain preferential fiscal treatment and favor a stable tax regime.

First, it is because setting tax terms stability in contractual arrangements is the first step and a legal way for a company to avoid taxes and maximize its profit. Under its contract of work (CoW), Freeport enjoys preferential treatment in several ways, such as tax stability throughout the life of the project until the end of the contract.

The company enjoys a lower percentage of mineral tax such as 1 percent for gold, 3.75 percent for copper, an exemption for export tax, the waiving of import duty on capital goods and other incentives. Such a special package is lower than the percentage in the provision under the Indonesian mineral and coal law.

Secondly, looking specifically at the basis of taxation, many corporations commonly prefer to choose profit-based taxation - mainly through corporate income tax, rather than production-based taxation.

In this scheme, a corporation receives more opportunity and gets an easier way to carry out tax evasion and tax avoidance - mainly through transfer mispricing. In contrast, there is a disadvantage for producing countries because of the lack of monitoring of the volume and record of the company’s actual profits. Although, Freepost corporate income tax is 35 percent or higher than the 25 percent required by the Indonesian Income Tax Law, it is still difficult to conclude that the profit based taxation is better for Indonesia rather than production-based taxation.

One of forms of the production-based taxation, which is also challenged strongly by Freeport, is export tax on minerals and other mining products.

The export tax on the extractive industries benefits government in two ways by making collection easier and giving governments the ability to control the volume, price and quality of commodities exported.

On the other hand, for the companies, the chance to evade taxes through under recording of the real volume and underestimating the quality of ore is narrowed.

In addition, mining companies can manipulate profit reports by increasing costs and undervaluing prices before they shift profits to jurisdictions with lower taxes.

That is why Freeport is unwilling to revisit the fiscal stability terms of its current 30-year CoW. Is Freeport involved in these schemes? We dont know yet. Some reports have revealed that the mining giant has conduit companies and subsidiaries in tax havens. However, more investigation and more evidence are needed.

The renegotiation of contractual arrangements is a battlefield for both corporations and producing countries. Mining companies will struggle to ensure that they will receive advantageous fiscal terms or if such terms already exist in the contract, they will defend it whatever the condition, including when the government attempts to change its policy in the mining sector.

Intimidation through a legal action and other dirty methods is not taboo for them, for example with bribery, promises to offer initial payments and signature bonuses to the elites in government, and if necessary, using worker layoffs as a tool to put more pressure on the government.

Not only in Indonesia, but also in other developing countries, the government’s attempt to search for a fairer tax regime for mining industries faces pressure from corporations. Worker layoffs have been used as a bargaining tool when the government attempts to renegotiate contractual arrangements and to introduce changes to their tax regimes for mining industries.

For instance, when the Ghana governments plan to impose a 10 percent tax on windfall revenue in its 2012 budget was dropped due to the threat of multinational companies (MNCs) laying off workers.

Similarly, in Zambia, when government introduced a 25 percent tax on windfall revenue in 2008, it was canceled in 2009 following the threat of MNCs taking legal action and at the same time the copper price being hit by the global financial crisis.

Should Indonesia surrender like Ghana and Zambia? Of course, we should not. So far, we see that the government is still on track to achieve its objectives in this battle a combination of higher royalties, an export tax and participation in production through public ownership or through joint ventures between state - owned enterprises and the pure private corporation. These demands are still the best option to capture a share of the rents from the extractive sector.

As we know, previously, Indonesia’s attempt to change the contractual terms with Freeport includes a demand that Freeport pay higher royalties, build a smelter and begin paying export tax.

In addition, the government has also asked to increase the stake of the company owned by government or Indonesian citizens to 30 percent from the past 9.36 percent. Freeport agreed to such requests including the provision a US$115 million assurance bond to build smelter. However, the deal fell through when Indonesia offered a new one year export permit with the stricter requirements as required by the new Mineral law.

To the government, however, renegotiation of contractual arrangements is a process of reconciling two different interests. First, the interest of the state to increase its revenue and to ensure that it receives an adequate and fair share of revenue for other development purposes.

And second, the interest of the state to maintain the confidence of the private sector to invest in Indonesia.

However, the interest of the Indonesian people should outweigh the incentives and privileges for the corporation.

Maximizing revenue is crucial to the fulfillment and realization of economic, social and cultural rights and to eradicate poverty. This is also in line with the states obligation under the International covenant on economic, social and cultural rights (ICESCR). Meanwhile, the company should understand that their greed and rejection of a fair distribution of rents from mining will affect the deterioration of human rights in Papua and Indonesia.

Freeposts policy on taxation and its other company business strategy must comply with its obligation as provided by the second pillar of the UN Guideline Principles on Human Rights and Business The corporate responsibility to respect human rights.

Nurkholis Hidayat is a lawyer and analyst at the Indonesian Tax Justice Forum. The views expressed are his own.

Nurkholis Hidayat

 Source : The Jakarta Post, March 14, 2017

Terakhir Diperbaharui ( Kamis, 23 Maret 2017 09:33 )
 

Komnas HAM to review Freeports rights record

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The National Commission on Human Rights (Komnas HAM) will conduct an audit on gold and copper miner PT Freeport Indonesia following the government’s decision to assign the body an advisory role during a settlement with the company over a contractual dispute.

The local subsidiary of the United States-based mining giant Freeport McMoRan and the Indonesian government are in a standoff over the latters demand that a 1991 contract of work (CoW) be converted into a special mining license (ITJPK) before the company can extend its export permit. The move would automatically annul the long-term investment stability guarantee provided in the CoW.

Both parties have been working on settling the dispute since Feb. 17. The company has stated that it could take the case to international arbitration if there is no settlement within 120 days.

However, as tensions escalate from one day to the next, many parties have become embroiled in the dispute, including Komnas HAM.

The commission has stated that the company never paid compensation for land it currently uses as its working area in Mimika, Timika, Papua, to its original owners - the indigenous Amongme people.

"There should be an acknowledgment of the indigenous people. Then, it is important to carry out a human rights audit on this matter," Komnas HAM commissioner Nur Kholis told reporters after a meeting with Energy and Mineral Resources Minister Ig-nasius Jonan recently.

Nur Kholis said an audit was inevitable in the modern mining business and would include several aspects, such as the rights of indigenous people, workers and environmental sustainability.

Meanwhile, another Komnas HAM commissioner, Natalius Pigai, said if the Freeport Indonesia case could be settled in a positive manner, especially if there was proper compensation for the use of the indigenous peoples land for the past 50 years, it would set a positive precedent for Indonesias mining sector in the future.

"We can start in Timika before implementing such human rights-based approaches nationwide," Natalius said.

Nonetheless, Freeport Indonesia spokesperson Riza Pratama said the indigenous Amongme and Kamoro people had released their land rights and allowed the area to be used for the companys mining activities.

"Upon the release of the land rights, as stated in the legislation, compensation in the form of the recognition program, in the form of the development and provision of public facilities," Riza told The Jakarta Post on Friday.

He also said the company had consistently conducted community development programs for five other tribes, namely the Moni, Dani, Mee, Nduga and Damai tribes that originated from around the companys working area.

"As of 2015, Freeport Indonesia contributed US$1.4 billion to its community development program," Riza said.

Komnas HAM previously investigated Freeport Indonesia following a fatal tunnel collapse at the companys Big Gossan training facility in Mimika on May 14,2013.

As a result, the commission alleged in February 2014 that negligence by the company led to the death of 28 workers during the incident. It claimed the collapse was a mining accident instead of a natural disaster due to the lack of monitoring by experts from the Energy and Mineral Resources Ministry and Freeport Indonesia over rock conditions around the tunnel.

Previously, several landslides had occurred ia the companys working areas in Papua, including in 1995, 2000 and 2003, resulting in the death of dozens of workers and severe damage to public facilities.

On Tuesday morfting, j-ep-resentatives of the indigenous Amongme and Kamoro peoples visited the Komnas HAM office in Jakarta to report damage to watersheds on their original land following decades of Freeport Indonesias operations in Timika.

Meanwhile, Papua Governor Lukas Enembe paid a visit to the Energy and Mineral Resources Ministry office on Thursday to discuss the dispute settlement between the government and Freeport Indonesia.

During the meeting, the ministrys minerals and coal director general Bambang Gatot Ariyono said the government was still negotiating on several issues related to the companys investment stability.

"However, if Freeport Indonesia still refuses to make a settlement within six months, it can just go back to its CoW without being able to export its copper concentrates," Bambang said.

Viriya P. Singgih

 Source : The Jakarta Post, March 13, 2017

Terakhir Diperbaharui ( Kamis, 23 Maret 2017 09:28 )
 
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